Wednesday, January 14, 2015

The Vitalism of Naturopathy:

[click here, to return to the main document, http://naturocrit.blogspot.com/]
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Achterberg, J. (? ?), Braden, G. (? ?), Goleman, D. (? ?), Lipton, B.H. (? ?), McTaggart, L. (? ?), Pert, C. (? ?), Small, G. (? ?) state:
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[in "Measuring the Immeasurable: The Scientific Case For Spirituality" (2008)]
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"ancient Chinese medicine says that chi, loosely translated as 'the life force,' originates in the bone [p.021...] the essence of religious experience is an act of feeling the animating force -- spiritus -- within the lived encounter. When my clients experienced this [p.092] elan vital surging forth from within them, it was not surprising that they also encountered aspects of the religious experience [p.093...] yoga practitioners believe that blockages or shortages of life force can cause disease or decreased resistance to disease and that yoga can restore the flow of life force to different parts of the body [p.368...] prana (vital force) [p.369...] consciousness is the life force behind, within and beyond the phenomenal world [p.448]";
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(ISBN 1591796547)
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Adams, C.J. (? ?) states:
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[in “Inner Art of Vegetarianism: Spiritual Practices for Body and Soul” (2000)]
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“the Sanskrit word prana literally means ‘breathing forth,’ but it has come to represent the universal life force. Prana […] it is the universal life force that we share with other beings. Just as prana means spirit or consciousness, in Greek the term is pneuma, literally, breath, wind, spirit. Just as with prana, pneuma also connotes the vital spirit. In Latin, we find a similar work […] anima means soul, spirit, life, breath […] from anima, the soul [p.074]”;
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(ISBN 1930051131)
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Adams, J. (? ?) Easthope, G. (? ?), Tovey, P. (? ?) {ed.s}state:
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[in “The Mainstreaming of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Studies in Social Context” (2004)]
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vitalism accepts that all living organisms are sustained by a vital force […] vitalism stands in direct opposition to materialism, which holds that disease can be explained entirely in terms of materialistic factors and therefore there is no need to invoke vitalistic forces […] vitalism is usually held to be a metaphysical belief that failed the death of a thousand qualifications […] in CAM there are numerous ways of expressing this vitalism (qi, life force, yin / yang, prana, universal intelligence, innate, etc.) [p.113]”;
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(ISBN 0415266998)
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Adamson, E. (? ?), Budilovsky, J. (? ?) state:
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[in "the Complete Idiot's Guide to Meditation" (2002)]
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"prana, chi, the force: whatever you call it, get with it [...] prana, c'hi, chi, and ki are all names for life-force energy that animates the body and the universe [...] yogis call it prana. The Chinese call it c'hi or chi. The Japanese call it ki [...and per the Star Wars movies, per science fiction!] the force [p.074...] yoga, massage, bodywork, Chinese medicine, homeopathy, and mediation are some of the main methods for getting in tune with your life-force energy [p.075]";
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(ISBN 0028644417)
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[in "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Yoga" (2003)]
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"prana [...] is a form of energy in the universe that animates all physical matter, including the human body. Prana is the soul of the universe. Doing yoga maximizes your body's flow of the universal life force, giving you better health [...] prana -- life force [p.006...] prana, the universal life force [...] prana is the energy that keeps you vibrant and animated [p.095...] prana, or life force [p.106...] learn how to infuse your body with life-force energy, prana, through these exercises [p.167...] prana, the universal life force [...] we describe prana as the life force or energy that exists everywhere and is manifested in each of us through breath [...] prana exists in all living things [...] it's pure energy. Every cell in your body is controlled by prana. Prana animates all matter [...] life is animated by [p.181...] prana is the universal life force [p.193...] prana, or life force [p.293...] life force (prana) [p.322...] prana (life force) [p.324...] universal life force. See life force (prana) [...] vitality (prana) [p.327]";
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(ISBN 0028644670)
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[in “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Massage” (1998)]
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energy channels or energy meridians are specific channels that run through the body like rivers, through which life-force energy flows […] the Chinese concept of chi […] energy, or life force […] this energy or life force is known as chi […] or qi, ki in Japan, prana in India, rlun in Tibet, and pneuma in ancient Greece. Westerners tend to call it energy [p.084…] the concept of chi, or life-force energy that flows through the body, isn’t unique to the Chinese. In Japan, its is ki. In India, it is prana. In Tibet it is rlun. In ancient Greece, it was pneuma. Westerners call it a number of things, all along the lines of ‘life-force energy’ [p.085…] energy therapy. According to the theory behind energy therapy, your body is surrounded and permeated by a vibrant energy field – the universal life force called chi, prana, or energy [p.141…] glossary […] chi: life force energy that flows through and around the body and throughout the universe. In Japan it is called ki, in India prana, in Tibet rlun, in ancient Greece, pneuma. Westerners call it a number of things, all along the lines of ‘life force energy’ [p.335…] prana: see chi [p.339]”;
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(ISBN 0028627083)
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Adamson, E. (? ?), Horning, L. (? ?) state:
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[in "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Fasting" (2002)]
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"fasting for greater spiritual awareness [...] prana -- the Sanskrit word for life-force energy [p.068...] fasting does affect the body's life-force energy, sometimes called chi or prana; [and] the chakras or energy centers [...and] the aura [p.072...] soul as metaphor. Concepts like chi, prana, chakras, and auras [p.079...] life-force energy. Also called chi, ki, and prana [...it's] immeasurable [...and] animates the body and all other life [...and] flows in pathways over the earth, through inanimate objects, and throughout the universe [...per] acupuncture, Chinese medicine [...] Hinduism and yoga [...] prana. See life-force energy [p.272]";
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(ISBN 0028643275)
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Adamson, E. (? ?), Komitor, J. state:
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[in "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Yoga With Kids" (2000)]
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"prana is the Hindu word for the life-force energy [p.128…] chakras are energy centers in the body thought to be concentrated centers of prana, or life-force energy [p.135…] prana is the yoga term for life-force energy [p.143…] chakras: energy centers in the body thought to be concentrated centers of prana or life-force energy, connected by energy channels [p.358…] prana: the Hindu word for the life-force energy in the body and the environment that can be taken in and transformed within the body through special breathing techniques called pranayama, and energy retention techniques called handhas [p.360]";
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(ISBN 0028639359)
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Adamson, E. (? ?), Takoma, G. (? ?) state:
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[in "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Power Yoga" (1999)]
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"prana, chi, and the life force [p.065...] prana is the Sanskrit word for energy, while chi is the Chinese term. Both refer to energy that flows through the body and also exists outside the body in everything around us [...] prana and chi [...] interpretations of the same thing: the life force energy that fills us, surrounds us, and flows through the universe [p.067...] life force energy or prana [p.069...] chi: the Chinese term for life-force energy that flows through the body and also exists outside the body in everything around us [p.394...] prana: the Sanskrit word for life-force energy that flows through the body and exists outside the body in everything around us [p.396]";
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(ISBN 0028631889)
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Adler, J.A. (? ?) states:
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[in “Chinese Religion: An Overview”{from “Encyclopedia of Religion” (2nd ed. 2005)]
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“Daoism is fundamentally rooted in the concept of qi, the psycho-physical-spiritual substance out of which nature, gods, and humans evolve. The source and order of this vital substance is the dao, the ultimate power of life in the universe. The gods are personified manifestations of qi, symbolizing astral powers of the cosmos and organs of the human body with which they are correlated. Under the conditions of ordinary existence qi becomes stale and dissipated, so it must be renewed through ritual and meditative processes that restore its primal vitality. Some of these practices consist of visualizing and calling down the cosmic gods to reestablish their contact with their bodily correlates. In this way the adept ingests divine power and so recharges his bodily forces for healing, rejuvenation, and long life. In others, the substances of the human body - jing (life-giving 'essences,' such as sexual fluids), qi ('vital breath,' in a more specific sense than the general qi of which all things are composed), and shen (spirit) - are manipulated and purified through visualization and meditation. Physical exercises and dietary practices (such as abstinence from grains, which are thought to contain the dark yin power of the earth) are also parts of the daoist regimen. The general aim of these practices is to enhance spiritual and physical health”;
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(ISBN 0028657330)
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(click here,
(archived here,
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Ajjan, D.L. (? ?) states:
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[in “Stress, Anxiety and Depression: The Natural Way of Healing” (1995)]
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“Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism are the underlying philosophies of Chinese medicine p.019…] a unity exists within the diversity of nature – a universal energy that exists in all things. This energy, called chi […] it nourishes the mind and body and has been described as the life force [p.020…] in homeopathy, symptoms are seen as a healthy response of the body’s defense mechanism. The vital force, or vital energy, acts to keep the body in balance. When the body is threatened by some harmful external influence, the vital force ( or defense mechanism) produces symptoms [p.030…] Chinese doctors see the mind as chi; homeopaths call it our vital force [p.079…] chi, or vital energy [p.182]”;
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(ISBN 0440216591)
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Albertus, F. (? ?) states:
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[in “The Alchemist's Handbook: Manual For Practical Laboratory Alchemy” (1987)]
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“'what constitutes life force?' [...] the life force originates not in fire, earth, air and water. This life force is a separate essence which fills the universe. This essence, or fifth essence (quintessence), is the truly important object that alchemists seek. It is the fifth of the four: fire, water, air, and earth [p.018...] this vital life force plus its purified salt, or mineral substance, are the curative agents [p.046...] the object of alchemical remedies is to supplement the lacing or deficient positive forces in the human body which represents the negative part in contradistinction to the positive vital life force (which in Sanskrit is called 'prana'). This [p.054] vital life force, prana, or quintessence can only be separated through alchemy [p.055...a] the vital life force [p.056...] corpse [...] the physical organism was present – but the life force – life itself – that mystery of mysteries – had vanished [...] the primary force that animates our total physical functioning [...] primary force [p.106...] to continue to inject stimulants under these circumstances will prove harmful and disruptive – causing the vital life force to seek more harmonious surroundings [p.109]”;
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(ISBN 0877286558)
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Alegretti, W. (? ?) states:
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[in “Retrocognitions: An Investigation Into the Memories Of Past Lives And The Periods Between Lives”(2004)]
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“an extensive list of synonyms bespeaks the universality of bioenergy [...] bioenergy is, in general terms, the same as the following: acasa (Hindu), axe (African), bioplasma (V.S. Grischenko), chi/qi (acupuncture, China), astral energy, biopsychic energy, cosmic energy, vital energy, negative entropy (Erwin Schrodinger), magnetic fluid (Franz A. Mesmer), psychic fluid, vital fluid (Allan Kardec), etheric force (radiestesists), vital force (C.F.S. Hahnemann), libido (Sigmund Freud), astral light (Helena P. Blavatsky), animal magnetism (Franz A. Mesmer), od (K.L. Von Reichenbach), orgone (Wilhelm Reich), prana (yogis, India) and synchronicity (C.G. Jung) [p.055]”;
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(ISBN 0970213166)
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Alexander, S. (? ?) states:
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[in “10-Minute Crystal Ball...” (2002)]
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“see orgone energy emanating from a body of water [...] Reich proposed that a life energy, which he called 'orgone,' is concentrated in rivers, ponds, and other bodies of water [...] look just above the surface of water – can you see a faint, swirling movement that may appear bluish-white or slightly milky? That's orgone energy (also known as ch'i or prana)”;
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(ISBN 1931412243)
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Allen, J.H. (MD ?) states:
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[in “The Chronic Miasmas: Psora and Pseudo-Psora” (1998)]
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“disease is the vicarious embodiment of some miasmatic influence that has bonded itself with the life force [...the homeopathic remedy] can be introduced into the organism and, by its bond with the life force, produce the artificial disease phenomena, a fact that is undemonstrable to science [p.016...] the life force, that vital energy which not only vivifies the whole organism, every cell, every fiber of our being, but sustains and controls all cell life and every physiological expression of life [p.040...] the bond of the subversive force with the life force we saw was an invisible thing to be recognized only in its working with the life force, or in new and strange phenomena it presents as it hinders life action [p.042...] the life force is the dynamis, and the life force in a normal condition could not do other than give the to that organism true physiological impulses and health and life giving qualities [p.061...] the dynamis of the organism (the life force) [p.073...] the dynamical doctrines of Hahnemann, that, disease is nothing more than the disturbance of the life force [p.077...] we must go back to the life force for all action and all change in the structures of the organism itself [p.089...etc.] the miasm is the opposing force to the life force [p.108...] we must first know and understand that disease originates in the life force [p.145...] when Hahnemann says, ‘disease is a disturbance of the life force,’ it means nothing to many of us, because we know so little about this life force that vivifies and animates the human body [...] we must also know something about the chronic miasms, before we can understand, before we can understand the true cause and the multiple changes in the phenomena of disease [p.256]”;
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(ISBN 8170210828)
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Almeder, R.F. (? ?), Hunter, J.M. (? ?) {editors} state:
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[in "Alternative Medicine and Ethics" (1998)]
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"[according to Barret, S.] many ‘alternative’ approaches are rooted in vitalism, the concept that the bodily functions are affected by a vital principle or ‘life force’ […] homeopaths, for example, claim that illness is due to a disturbance of the body’s ‘vital force’ […] while many acupuncturists claim that disease is due to imbalance in the flow of ‘life energy’ (chi or qi) […] many chiropractors claim to assist the body’s ‘innate intelligence’ […] naturopaths speak of ‘vis medicatrix naturae.’ Ayurvedic physicians refer to ‘prana.’ And so on [p.006…] ‘Chinese medicine,’ often called ‘Oriental medicine’ or ‘traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)’ […] holds that the body’s vital energy (chi or qi) [etc. p.008…] qigong is also claimed to influence the flow of vital energy [p.009…] aromatherapy […] aromatic oils are alleged […] to represent the ‘life force,’ spirit,’ or ‘soul’ of the plant [p.011…] chiropractic […] Palmer, chiropractic’s founder, postulated that the body’s ‘vital force,’ which he termed ‘innate,’ expressed itself through the nervous system [p.013…] homeopathy [p.020...] proponents […] claim that the vigorous shaking or pulverizing with each step of dilution leaves behind a ‘spirit-likeessence that cures by reviving the body’s vital force [p.021…] naturopaths […] state that diseases are the body’s effort to defend itself and that cures result from increasing the patient’s vital force’ [p.023]";
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(ISBN 0896034402)
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Allegretti, J. (? ?), Sommers, K. (? ?) state:
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[in "Complete Holistic Dog Book: Home Health Care for Our Canine Companions" (2003)]
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"the physical and mental energy systems that make up the life force of an individual [p.012...] a homeopathic remedy that matches her symptom picture may be given to stimulate her vital force [p.073...] the remedy stimulates the patient's life force, or vital energy, to begin the healing process [p.078...] for a dog with a strong vital force [p.083...] with homeopathic remedies we can stimulate the body's vital force to resolve illness or injury at its deepest level [p.087...] each animal's 'life force,' or qi [p.095...] reiki means 'universal life force,' seeks to rebalance the life force energy that has been blocked [p.110...] to transfer the life force from the plants to help balance a patient's vital force [p.115...] through homeopathy, acupuncture, herbal formulas, and food therapy, she will focus on rebalancing and supporting the body's life force toward a deep level of healing [p.212]";
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(ISBN 1587611449)
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Allison, N. (CMA ?) states:
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[in "The Complete Body, Mind, and Spirit" (2001)]
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"subtle energy practices [...] an energetic essence invisible to the naked eye [...] the primary cause of health and disease [...aka] bodywork [...] energetic bodywork practices traditionally associated with the title 'subtle energy therapy' [...] the life force: a worldview [...] an energetic life force [...] it is the basis of ayurvedic, Asian, Western esoteric, and many modern [!] therapeutic health care practices [...] the energetic life force has been known by many different names around the world [...aka] the Sanskrit word prana means 'breath' [p.105...] chi or qi is the Chinese word to describe the subtle energy permeating the body [...] the energetic life force has gone by many names in the Western scientific[!] health models [...] Hippocrates [...] recognized and invisible life force, which he described as the body's own internal healing and balancing mechanism [...] Gnostic Christian sects [...] practiced religious healing rituals based on the belief that the divine spirit of Christ literally existed in each person [...] Hahnemann [...] developed a health care modality called homeopathy based on his belief in a dynamis, or vital force [...] this invisible energy was the primary healing and life-giving agent of the body [...] Reich [...] create[d] medical orgonomy [...per] an invisible life energy, which he called orgone, that was to some extent the cause of all health and disease [... ] the energetic life force [p.106...] a three-dimensional field of pulsating energy called chi in Chinese tradition and prana in ayurvedic medicine [p.116...] prana, or life force [p.274]";
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(ISBN 0658007041)
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Alternative Links Systems, Inc. (? ?) states:
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[in "The State Legal Guide To Complementary & Alternative Medicine and Nursing" (2001)]
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"naturopathic medicine [...] the Hawaii Board of Examiners in Naturopathy advises: 'naturopathy means the practice of [...] natural medicine, natural therapeutics, and natural procedures [...] improving the quality, quantity, harmony, balance and flow of the vital fluids, vital tissues and vital energy [p.100]";
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(ISBN 0766827976)
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Anderson, L. (? ?), Wisneski, L.A. (? ?) state:
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[in "The Scientific{!} Basis of Integrative Medicine" (2004)]
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"this book looks at how various forms of energy (e.g., light, sound, electromagnetism, and prayer[!]) translate into chemical and electrical signals that orchestrate our physical health […] ‘subtle energy,’ that is, types of energy that typically are not detectable by the five senses or current scientific instrumentation [!and yet this is scientific! ...] Eastern systems of medicine […] Eastern medical concepts concern endogenous energy systems, such as qi or life force […] a new form of medicine. I call it integral medicine [from introduction…] in Chinese medicine, there is a central concept of a vital energy or life force, which is called qi. Meridians are the names given to the complex pathways within out bodies along which qi (a subtle energy) flows […] homeostasis or balance of qi [p.235…] qi and chi are two spellings for the same word, meaning vital force or life energy force [p.236…] therapeutic touch […based on] ancient principles of Indian or Chinese concepts of life force (prana and qi, respectively) [p.239…] reiki comes from two Japanese characters: rei, meaning universal, source of life, air or spirit; and ki, meaning life force or vital energy. The patient’s energy is said to be attuned or realigned from the session [p.240…] vital energy or life force [p.244…] the energy that is referred to in Chinese medicine as qi is loosely translated as ‘vital energy’ or ‘life force’ [p.263]";
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(ISBN 084932081X)
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Andrews, C. (? ?), Spignesi, C. (? ?) state:
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[in “Crop Circles: Signs of Contact” ()]
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life force energies […] esoteric, indefinable forces commonly described as ‘life force energies’ are creating the patterns […] an interconnected life force energy […] Reich […] identified this vital life force as orgone energy […] orgone is the energy permeating everything and perhaps the collective unconscious is manipulating this energy to create crop patterns for a multitude of urgent reasons [p.068…] a theoretical [!] universal life force emanating from all organic material first hypothesized by Austrian scientist Wilhelm Reich [p.194]”;
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(ISBN 156414674X)
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Anshutz, E.P. (? ?) states:
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[in "Old, New, and Forgotten Remedies" (2002)]
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"we shall intercalcate here sections 25-33 of the Organon [p.450...]
every disease [...] is due only to a particular morbid derangement of our vital force [...] so the homeotherapeutic return to health of vital force [...occurs] through the administration of a drug accurately chosen to the similarity of symptoms [...an] artificial morbidity [...is] thrust into the place of weaker, similar natural disease [...and] the instinct-like vital force [...] is compelled to exert greater energy [p. 451]";
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(ISBN 8170212510)
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Apfelbaum, A. (? ?) states:
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[in “Thai Massage: Sacred Bodywork” (2004)]
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“[recommender Stapleton, D. (PhD ?) states] ‘fortunately for contemporary culture, the ancients evolved methods for attuning to the healing powers of the life force, known in yoga as ‘prana.’ Thai massage [etc.{no page number}…] energy lines. Thai massage uses energy line work on the body […] based on the Eastern understanding that energy forms the basis of all life and that this energy travels along invisible pathways within the body […] what is this energy? Different cultures have given different names to this energy. In India, it is called prana; in China, chi (or qi); in Japan, ki; and in Thailand, lom, which means ‘wind.’ This energy can be defined as vital [p.012] force. It is absorbed from the air we breathe and the food we eat, and is believed to move along invisible pathways. In Thailand, these pathways are called sen; in India, nadis; in China and Japan, meridians, channels, and/vessels […] 'they are not solid realities which one can point out like in the physical body […] such identifications do not hold up' […] 'healers are able to recognize meridians when they are in sympathy with the patient’s vital energy' […] the philosophy behind the Thai approach is that going up and down the lines clears all obstructions, facilitating unhindered energy flow within the body. Disease is believed to be the result of a blockage in energy flow [p.013…] the nadis (energy pathways) are activated so that prana (life force) can flow more freely through the body [p.017…] returning to the similarities between India and China’s traditional medical correspondences […] ‘with their emphasis on the life-force’ [p.027…] traditional Chinese medicine is based on the theory of yin and yang, ki, and the five elements […] ki, as mentioned earlier, is best explained as vital energy or force [p.033…] the abdomen […] according to author Maxine Shapiro, it ‘is the home of the breath, the spirit (qi and ki’ [p.129]”;
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(ISBN 1583331689)
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Ashburner, J. (? ?) states:
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[in “Notes and Studies in the Philosophy of Animal Magnetism and Spiritualism” (2001)]
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“the evolutions of forces to be traced from the lowest grades of mineral crystal force by successive gradations up to that magnetic vital force culminating finally in the magnet or grand crystal, man [p.vii...] all other matter, when denuded of magnetic or vital force, it is dead and unable of itself to move, much less to think [p.xii...] von Reichenbach [...] in the philosophy of an all pervading force of nature, to which he has given the name od [...per] the Scandinavian deity [...] the all pervading spirit of nature [...] Odin [p.036...] the Baron von Reichenbach designates, the od force [p.039...] von Reichenbach [...] with a view to questions on vital forces [...] he had discovered a new force, to which he applied the name of od. This force had close analogies to magnetism [...] vital forces [p.083...] each living organic particle magnetic [...] removal from it of its magnetic vital force [p.095...] in death from lightning, whether the current be direct or inverse [!], the vital force being at once removed [...] the removal of the vital force has been the result of the polarities of the system [etc....] the death by lightning is a most appalling idea, for the vital force has in an instant fled [p.124...] 'the mode of the occult influence obtains from van Helmont the name magnale magnum. It is not material substance, capable of being condensed, measured, weighed. It is purely aethereal, vital spirit, or force, penetrating all bodies, and agitating the mass of the universe' [p.186...] inverse currents of vital force, or negative currents of animal magnetism [p.198...] all disease results from abnormal currents of vital force, and the removal of the cause of the inverse current [!] effected the immediate cure [p.219...] the od force and the odic light emanating from living organized bodies [p.325...] the magnetic force to which he gave the name of od [p.354]“;
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(ISBN 1402194137)
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Atwood, K.C. IV (MD ?) states:
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[for his 2003 Medscape article, see Journals]
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